Keeping your pond in good condition should be your number one priority. Once your pond starts developing problems, you will find that it will take more time and money then if you were attempting to prevent these problems from happening in the first place.
You filtration system is extremely important. There are 2 types of filtration, mechanical and biological. Mechanical filtration relieves the pond of solids such as dead algae, insects, and Koi wastes. It is important to have enough filtration to sustain the size of the pond, and the amount and size of your Koi. Biological filtration causes a nitrogen cycle, which is what removes dissolved wastes from your pond. Without biological filtration, built up waste will turn into ammonia and kill your Koi within just a few days.
Keeping you Koi pond clean should be one of your number one priorities. A clean pond could mean the difference between you Koi living a beautiful stress free life, and potentially suffering until they ultimately die. The water in which your Koi live is not only where they eat, sleep, and feed, but it is also where they use the bathroom in it as well. If you do not properly clean your pond, it is almost as if your Koi are living in the bathroom toilet.
The water in your pond should almost be completely clear. Your pond should contain no floating or suspended debris, and the Koi should appear to be floating in air. If you are unable to see the bottom of your pond, then chances are your pond is not clean enough.
Keep Supplies On Hand
As a new Koi pond owner, you may be overwhelmed with the amount of supplies needed to properly maintain your Koi pond. While the important of the majority of these items cannot be denied, the feeling of being overwhelmed by the amount needed should be disregarded. Simply knowing the function of each item can help you understand why they are needed.
There are certain items that you need to have on hand at all times. Because you pond is outdoors, emergency situations do occur. Nature is simply unpredictable at times, and you do not want to be caught in a situation where an item is needed, but they is no way to obtain it.
Do Not Overfeed
Overfeeding can ultimately cause water quality issues.. In nature, Koi would not nearly the amount of food that they do in controlled ponds. It is not unheard of for pond owners to feed many pounds of food to their Koi per week. This produces a larger amount of waste, whether it comes from the digestion process on the Koi's part, or the amount of uneaten food that has settled to the bottom and spoiled. It is important to vacuum the bottom out as much as possible, and make sure all types of drainage systems are clear and in working order.
Prevent Common Illnesses
When purchasing new fish, it is a good idea to quarantine the new fish separately from your current population for no less then 15 days. Knowing that the Koi Herpes Virus is activated at exactly 74 degrees Fahrenheit allows you to expose your fish to the right conditions for the disease to show itself. Koi that live in the conditions for this amount of time and do not develop any symptoms will have a substantially less chance of having the virus.
It is important to remember that when you quarantine your new Koi, they should remain under total isolation. This means that you should not allow anything to come into contact with the quarantined Koi, especially items that also come into contact with your current population. Separate tools, food, and water should be used, and never under any circumstances, should the tools used for your quarantined fish leave the area in which they are used. Another important thing to remember is proper hand washing procedures when handling both Koi and Koi items within the same time period.
Quarantining will not guarantee that you will not expose your fish to viruses, but it will greatly reduce the chance that you are.